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Monthly Archives: August 2015

  1. How does Reverse Osmosis (RO) work?

    Post by : Zerob

    What is reverse osmosis?
    How does reverse osmosis work?
    Does RO happen naturally?
    Why do you need reverse osmosis?
    How much salts can reverse osmosis remove?

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a technology that is used to remove a majority of contaminants from water by pushing the water under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane.

    To understand the process of reverse osmosis you must first understand the natural process of Osmosis. Osmosis is actually a naturally occuring phenomenon and an important procedure in nature. So this is how it goes, a weaker saline solution will tend to migrate to a stronger saline solution. Just like the roots of a plant absorb water from the soil or  our kidneys absorb water from our blood.

    If you take a container full of water with low salt and another container with a higher salt concentration and if they were separated by a semi-permeable membrane, then the water with the low salt concentration would begin to migrate towards the water container with the higher salt concentration.

    Reverse Osmosis as the names suggests, it is a process of Osmosis in reverse. Whereas Osmosis occurs naturally without energy required, to reverse the process of osmosis you need to apply energy to the more saline solution. A reverse osmosis membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules but not the dissolved salts, organics, bacteria and pyrogens. However, you need to ‘push’ the water through the reverse osmosis membrane by applying pressure that is greater than the naturally occurring osmotic pressure in order to deionize water in the process, allowing pure water through while holding back a majority of contaminants.

    Reverse Osmosis works by using a high pressure pump to increase the pressure on the salt side of the RO and force the water across the semi-permeable RO membrane, leaving almost all of dissolved salts behind in the reject stream. The amount of pressure needed is dependent on the salt concentration of the feed water. The more concentrated the feed water, the more pressure is required to overcome the osmotic pressure. The deionized water, is called permeate water.The water stream that carries the concentrated contaminants that did not pass through the RO membrane is called the reject stream.

    As the feed water enters the RO membrane the water molecules pass through the membrane and the salts and other contaminants are not allowed to pass and are allowed to pass and are discharged to drains. The water that makes it through the RO membrane is treated and pure now and usually has around 95% to 99% of the dissolved salts removed from it.

    Reverse Osmosis can remove up to 99% of the dissolved salts (ions), organics, bacteria, viruses, pathogens and other micro particles from the water. RO is very efficient when it comes to treating surface and groundwater.

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  2. What is carbon filtering and how do carbon filters work?

    Post by : Zerob

    What is carbon filtering?
    How does carbon filters work?
    What are the types of carbon filters?
    What’s the area size of carbon?
    Can carbon filters remove checmicals?
    Carbon filtering is a means of filtering that is used to remove hazardous impurities and contaminants through chemical absorption. Carbon filtration has been used for several hundred years and is considered one of the oldest methods of water purification. Historians have shown evidence that carbon filtration may have been used in ancient Egyptian cultures for medical purposes and as a purifying agent. The first recorded use of a carbon filter to purify potable water on a large scale occurred in 19th century England.
    One pound of carbon has a surface area of approximately 125 acres allowing it to physically absorb a huge amount of chemicals and impurities that pose dangers to the domestic water supply, this is why a carbon filter works so well.

    Can carbon filters remove chemicals?
    Carbon filters can easily remove a number of chemicals, these include chlorine, benzene, radon, solvents trihalomethane compounds, volatile organic chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides and hundreds of other man-made chemicals that may come into contact with tap water as it proceeds through the system.
    Types of Carbon Filters.
    Normally there are two types of carbon filters:
    1. Granular Activated Carbon.
    Activated carbon has a positive charge so it can attract impurities, but lesser when compared to the power of a Block Carbon.
    2. Block Carbon.
    Block Carbon has a higher contaminant removal ratio because its surface area is bigger than that of an Activated Carbon.
    If you are looking for a Carbon Filter —->

    https://www.zerobonline.com/en1/ngma-carbon-filter.html

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  3. Ultraviolet or UV Water Purifiers

    Post by : Zerob

    What are UV water purifiers?
    How are UV water purifiers useful?
    Are UV purifiers better?
    Are UV purifiers designed to treat waters from all types?
    Where is the UV light source placed?

    Ultraviolet (UV) water purifiers provides one of the most effective ways of purifying water by removing biological contaminants. UV purifiers are used to guard against water-borne viruses, bacteria and other disease-causing microorganisms such as giardia, cryptosporidium, etc. Viruses like hepatitis, which cannot be removed by chlorine-treated water, can be easily eliminated by UV water purifiers.

    In UV Water Purifiers, invisible Ultraviolet (UV) light is emitted by a UV light source. At certain intensities, UV light emits enough radiation to kill the DNA in bacteria and other microorganisms.In an ultraviolet water purifiers a UV light source with an output of around 254 nanometers is used to produce radiation of an intensity greater than that produced by sunlight.

    This UV light source is placed in front of a flow chamber through which water passes. The water is exposed to the UV light source as it passes through the chamber. Any harmful microbiological impurities that may be present in this water in the flow chamber becomes sterile because of this exposure to the ultra-violet radiation.

    The UV radiation used to treat water in the UV Water Purifier is effective enough to destroy 99.99% of harmful bacteria and viruses, including those associated with dreaded diseases such as Typhoid, Gastroenteritis, Hepatitis, Flu and Cholera. UV water purifiers are designed to treat water from different sources be it municipal water supply, drinking-water well or a water reservoir.

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  4. What are the Different Types OF Water Purifiers Available

    Post by : Zerob

    What are the different types of water purifiers?
    Which is the best water purifier?
    What are the key differences in water purifiers?
    What are the price ranges of water purifiers?
    What do water purifiers use?
    There are various different types of Water Purifiers available in the market today in different shapes, sizes and capacities for serving different purposes but with the one common goal of providing clean and pure water for human consumption. Water Purifier that are available for households come in different varieties – like the Tap Water Purifiers, the Wall Mount Purifiers, the Table Top Purifiers or Purifiers that are meant to be placed Under the Sink or Under a Platform. These are meant to fit in to individual requirements basis the available space and desired functionality.

    Based on the design and shape of the purifiers and the water purification capacity and the technologies used the cost of a Water Purifier can vary from Rs 399/- to over Rs 50,000/- or more. There are a number of different types of water purifiers available today. Each type addresses specific needs, and there’s no “one size fits all” water purification method. For this reason, we should know what these different types of water purifiers do, their benefits and how they match up to our specific needs.

    The water purifiers available in the market today uses a mix of the below mentioned techniques for the purification process:

    Candle filters
    Activated carbon filters
    UV technology
    Reverse Osmosis

    We will try and explain each one of them in details in our upcoming posts.

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  5. Candle Filters and the way they Function

    Post by : Zerob

    What are candle filters?
    How do candle filters work?
    What are some functions of a candle filter?
    Is candle filter cheap?
    Can candle filters remove chemicals?
    Candle filters has been there in existence for quite some time. In candle filters, the water is purified by passing it through a candle with very minute pores.
    Any impurity that is larger than the pores get blocked out. However, minute organisms like viruses may still pass on to the clean side. Some candles also use activated carbon to remove chemicals like chlorine.

    This is one of the cheapest purification methods and does not require any electricity.
    So if cost is one of your major concerns and if you are located in an area where there is no steady electric supply, then this can be your choice.
    One major drawback of candle filters is that they are not so effective against all kinds of impurities specially the microbiological and chemical impurities present in water. So to make the water purified by candle filter free of microbes,  it needs be boiled. The candles used in the purifier will also need to be cleansed frequently to prevent choking of pores due to impurities.

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