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Automatic Water Filters

AutoSand Filter
AutoSand Filter is an automatic particle filtration system that delivers highly clarified water from the unpleasant particulate water.
In this process of Automatic Sand Filtration it reduces turbidity and improves suspended solid removal compared to conventional sand filter media. Automatic backwashing is key feature which ensures consistent water quality and prolongs the life of the filtration media. It also enhance performances of softeners and larger RO systems.
In AutoSand Filter programmed in a way that it doesn’t require manual interface for backwashing.
Automatic SandFilter consist of key components; An Automatic sand filtration valve, the filter media and a media holding vessel.

Carbon Filter
Activated carbon, is a carbonaceous, highly porous adsorptive medium that has a complex structure composed primarily of carbon atom, it is prepared from a variety of carbonaceous precursors, including coal, peat and coconut shells which are carbonized and then “activated,” either by oxidization with CO2 or steam, or by treatment with acids, bases or other chemicals.

Activated carbon is widely used as an adsorbent in the purification of drinking water because of its ability to adsorb contaminants such as chlorine, chloramines, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and disinfection byproducts. Activated carbon is well suited to this task because of its exceptionally high surface area ranging from 800 to 1,500 m2/g, well-developed internal microporous structure.

Different Types of Activated Carbon

Activated carbon is mainly available in three forms or shapes: powder, granular and extruded. And each form is available in many sizes. Based upon the application and requirements, a specific form and size are recommended.

  1. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) : GAC are irregular shaped particles. These products range from the sizes 0.2mm to 5 mm.
  2. Silver impregnated carbon : This special grade granular activated carbon is used in Water purifiers, and it inhibits the growth of bacteria If purifier is not in use for many days, there will not be any further growth of bacteria
  3. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) : PACs generally have a particle size distribution ranging from 5 to 150 Å
  4. Extruded carbon : These are cylindrical pellets with diameter ranging from 1mm to 5mm.

Ion Exchange ZeroB use silver impregnated bacteriostatic activated carbon in RO & UV Water Purifiers and granular activate carbon is used in automatic carbon filters.

Iron Remover
Iron is a common metallic element found in nature. Water percolating through soil and rocks dissolves iron present in it, which subsequently enters into ground water bodies. In deep wells and springs, where both oxygen and pH content tend to be low, water containing dissolved iron appears colourless. When the same water is exposed to air, the dissolved iron reacts with atmospheric oxygen and converts to yellow a coloured suspended particle which finally forms a reddish brown residue. High concentration of iron cause reddish brown stains on laundry and household fixtures sometimes clogs water distribution pipes and imparts a bittersweet or metallic taste to drinking water.
The following types of iron can be found in potable water supplies:

  • Sequestering Iron
  • Organic Iron -“Heme Iron”
  • Iron Bacteria
  • Ferric Hydroxide or Red Water Iron
  • Ferrous Bicarbonate or Clear Water iron

We see that iron is found in many different forms. It is a challenge to remove iron from water as the treatment method differs for each type for iron. In India there is an acute problem of iron in water. The concentration of iron ranges from 1 –20 ppmin areas such as West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, and Chhattisgarh and in the east coast (Chennai and surrounding areas). This problem is faced in countries like Bangladesh, Malaysia and Kenya as well as in some part of the United States.

Conventional iron removal methods

  1. Oxidation & Chemical Precipitation Methods:
    Aeration, chlorine and ozone are generally used to precipitate iron in a retention tank. Supernatant water is then passed through sand filter to get iron free water.
    Demerits: This requires large space and continuous monitoring. Precipitated iron may cause clogging and rusting of pipes which affects the treatment cost.
  2. Green Sand
    Naturally occurring green sand coated with manganese results in purple-black media and acts as catalyst to precipitate iron and manganese.
    Demerits: As density of media is > 1.5, the required backwash pressure and flow is high. Continuous regeneration increases the chemical and operating cost of the unit.
  3. Ion Exchange Water Softener Can treat low level iron concentration (< 1 –5 ppm).
    Naturally occurring green sand coated with manganese results in purple-black media and acts as catalyst to precipitate iron and manganese.
    Demerits: Cleaning of resin is difficult. Oxidised iron may reduce the operating capacity of softener resin.

Ion Exchange India Limited has developed Iron Specific Resin is based on ion exchange resin technology and has manganese dioxide as a catalytic moiety.
It works as a catalyst to promote iron oxidation. Basically, iron and oxygen are attracted to manganese dioxide, which enhances the oxidation of dissolved iron and converts the soluble iron (Fe++) into insoluble ferric (Fe+++), which can be filtered through the media that acts as catalyst in this process and does not get consumed. In this reaction, manganese dioxide is reduced to manganese oxide and ferric hydroxide is precipitated. During backwash, the surface of this material is scoured, converting ittoMnO2, which is further used to oxidise the iron. Simple backwash regenerates manganese dioxide. No chemicals are required to regenerate the resin.

ZeroB Iron removal filter uses Ion Specific Resin which reduces Iron from water to a safe level as per IS 10500 drinking water standard.

Unique Features:

  • The media size ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 mm therefore it also acts as filter media, apart from iron precipitation.
  • The media doesn’t get consumed in the process of iron removal; as a result media has longer life.
  • The media can be easily backwashed for removal of filtered iron from the bed, and does not require regeneration.
  • The catalytic oxidation by the media requires less contact time and hence, less bed depth, Negligible labour and operational cost. Due to spherical beads, media undergoes less compaction.
  • Increased service velocity at lower feed iron content, resulting in cost reduction
  • Operable in a wide range of temperature (20-45oC)
  • Operates with high TDS (up to 2500 ppm) and lower alkalinity level

ZeroB iron removal filters are the first of its kind that use special granular media. These filters remove up to 10 ppm of inorganic iron from water, reducing this to an average of 0.3 ppm. They do not use chemicals and can be backwashed with only water/treated water. The media remains effective as long as feed water contains dissolved oxygen to the extent of its natural solubility.